Work & Trades

Work in London during the eighteenth century encompassed a wide variety of occupations, from rag merchants and hawkers to druggists and chemists, charwomen to clerks and scribes, company and bank directors to women of pleasure, ostlers to servants and gardeners.

Members of trading fraternities (livery companies—formerly, craft guilds or misteries) were among the wealthiest and most powerful of London's workforce. Guilds held monopoly over their crafts and typically regulated prices and wages in addition to determining who could work or trade. They also controlled standards, exercised powers of inspection, and punished infractions. The Lord Mayor of the City of London was chosen from the "Great Twelve" or "Great Liveries," the twelve most influential and wealthy city guilds, for centuries.

The images above are from John Norden's Speculum Britainiae (Mirror of Britain), re-issued in 1653 after his death. On the right and left sides of Norden's map are the coats of arms of the "Great Liveries": the Mercers, the Grocers, the Drapers, the Fishmongers, the Goldsmiths, the Skinners, the Merchantaylors, the Haberdashers, the Salters, the Ironmongers, the Vintners, and the Clothworkers.

Companies, Guilds, Liveries, Societies, and Fraternities in the City of London

from A Dictionary of London, by Henry Harben (1918)

Amicable Assurance Society

In Serjeant's Inn, Fleet Street.

Incorporated 1706, as an Assurance office (Dodsley, 1761). The Society purchased the Hall from the Serjeants.

Apothecaries' Company

Formed one company with the Grocers at first. Incorporated as a separate Company 1617. Grocers petitioned against separation in vain, 1621. So long previously as 1328, the elections to the Mystery of Apothecaries were made separately from those to the Grocers (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 232), although for many years subsequently, as in 1365, there was only one Warden for the trade of Grocers, Pepperers and Apothecaries (ib. G. p. 204).

Physic garden at Chelsea given to them by Sir Hans Sloane (Dodsley, 1761).

Styled the Society of Apothecaries. 

Armourers and Braziers' Company

Incorporated as the Armourers' Co. about 1453. The Braziers joined the Company afterwards, in 1708 (L. and M. Arch. Soc. Trans. II. (3), p. 301).

Twenty-second in rank. In existence as early as 1307–27. Blacksmiths incorporated with them 1515.

Baker's Company

Incorporated 1486 (Cal. L. Bk. L. p. 241).

The ordinances made to regulate the sale of bread from time to time were onerous and as early as 1299–1300 it was found necessary to appoint eight officers to safeguard the craft of Bakers (Cal. L. Bk. C. p. 57).

Two members of the Mistery of Bakers were elected to serve on the Common Council, 1376 (ib. H. p. 43).

The bakers at this time were divided into White-bakers and Tourte-bakers, having regulations for their use and guidance (ib. 106, and I. 258).

The ordinances of the Mistery of Broun bakers are set out 1481 (ib. L. 184–5), and numerous ordinances regulating the mistery are to be found in Liber Albus as at pp. 356–7, etc. Amongst other things they were to hold 4 "Halimota" in the year (Lib. Cust. I. 104–5), and these were to be held in the church of St. Thomas Acon (Cal. L. Bk. H. p. 207).

The Master and Wardens of the craft and Fellowship of Whyte Bakers are mentioned in a Will of 1533 (Ct. H.W. II. 637). 

Barber Surgeons

Barbers and Surgeons incorporated as one Company 32 H. VIII. Dissolved 1745.

The Barbers were in old times the chief Surgeons of the country, and the position of the Company was similar to that now held by the Royal College of Surgeons (Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. I. 346).

Bardi, the

A society into which certain Italian merchants formed themselves—the name being derived from the head of the house or firm (Arch. X. 242 n.).

In the Queen's Remembrancer Department is a bundle of documents containing records of a return made temp. Ed. I. of the quantity of wool in the possession of Italian merchants in England. One company making a return was called "La compaignie de Barde de Florenze" and another "La compaignie de Sire Barde Frescobald de Florenze" (ib. XXVII. 221).

They lent money to Edward I. Edward II. and Edward III. (ib. 243).

There was another company called "the Peruzzi" (Ct. H.W. II. 187).

A tenement in Lumbardstret abutting on "Lumbardstret" south, and "Cornhull" north was granted to the merchants of the society of the Bardi, 12 Bd. II. 1318 (Cal. P.R. Ed. II. 1317–24, p. 246).

Basket Makers

In 3 Ed. IV. they were allowed to have shops only in the Manor of Blanch Appleton (S. 151).

The 52nd of the City Companies. No Charter and no Hall.

Livery granted 1825.

Beaders, the

Elections to the Mistery of Beaders, 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 233).

Brewers' Company

The fourteenth of the City Companies. Incorporated 16 H. VI., and confirmed by the name of St. Mary and S. Thomas the Martyr, 19 Ed. IV. (S. 299). Charters confirmed by Elizabeth, Chas. I. and Jas. II. Ancient and interesting records.

Brewers, Fraternity of

This fraternity was connected with the church of All Hallows near the Wall in 1361 (Ct. H.W. II. 26).

Burellers

A Fraternity in Candelwykestrete in 1345 (Ct. H.W.I. 484).

"Burel" is defined in the N.E.D. as a coarse kind of cloth, probably originally brown in colour. It seems to be derived from the French word "bureau," a term still in use in France for this kind of cloth, formerly extensively manufactured in Normandy.

In the Liber de Antiquis Legibus the "burels" of Normandy are mentioned as being exempt from certain regulations made here as to the length and breadth of cloths (p. 125), although the exemption does not seem always to have been extended to the "burels" manufactured in London (Madox Hist. of the Exc. I. 509).

The Burellers or Burillers were the makers of "burel," this coarse kind of cloth, and they seem also to have prepared yarn for the use of the weavers, although the two trades were quite distinct (Lib. Cust. 420, 789–90).

In the 9th Ed. III. the Weavers made complaint against the Burellers of Candelwykstrete for exercising their craft without being members of the Weaver's Guild, and an inquiry was held into the matter, with the result that the Mayor and Aldermen and others finding that the Guild of Weavers was trying to monopolise the craft of weaving cloth in the City, ordained that all freemen of the City might set up their looms and weave and sell cloth at their pleasure (Cal. L. Book E. p. 296–8).

Butchers

Elections to the Mistery of Butchers are recorded in 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 233).

Fined in 1180 as an adulterine guild.

The butchers' quarters were Eastcheap and the Shambles at Newgate.

Foreign butchers were admitted to sell flesh in Leadenhall Market in 1533. Formerly they stood in Lime Street, and paid rent for their stalls to the householders. They were taken into Leadenhall to pay for their standing to the Chamber of London (S. 188 and 189).

The Fraternity of Butchers is mentioned in 1357 (Ct. H.W. I. 696).

Incorporated 1605.

Cappers

Capmakers. Election to the Mistery of Cappers, 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 233).

Carpenters' Company

Incorporated 17 Ed. IV. (S. 177). In 1344 (Elmes, 1831, and Dodsley).

Cheesemongers

Elections to Mistery of Cheesemongers made 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 234).

City Companies

The successors of the old Guilds (q.v.).

Their privileges as Livery Companies were confirmed by an ordinance of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, 1685 (H. MSS. Com. 12th Rep. VI. 292).

Clothworkers' Company

Formed by the incorporation of the Shearmen and Fullers into one art or mystery to be called the Clothworkers, 19 H. VIII. (Herbert, II. p. 651).

Possess ordinances of their own Company and of the Shearmen and Fullers (ib.).

Samuel Pepys was Master, 1677 (ib. 662).

The ordinances of the Shearmen, 1452, are preserved in the Court of the Commissory of London (Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. IV. pp. 2 and 8), and set out, ib. p. 35.

Cnihtegild

Little or nothing is known about the Cnihtegild, though Mr. Coote (Trans. Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc. V. pp. 477–93), Dr. Sharpe (Cal. Letter Book C. Introduction, pp. xvi–xxvi) and others have indulged in a good deal of speculation upon its constitution and objects, Mr. Loftie even assuming without any apparent authority that it was at one time the governing body of the City (London, p. 30).

It must be pointed out, however, that although the first members of the Gild are styled" Milites regi et regno multum amabiles," and although their successors of the 12th century presently to be mentioned are called "burgenses Londonie ex illa antiqua nobilium Militum Anglorum progenie," the term "cniht" was not used in the Anglo-Saxon period as the equivalent of the knight of the age of chivalry. It meant, first, "a lad," secondly, "an attendant or servant." The first instance given in the N.E.D. of its use as a military servant or follower is in A.D. 1100.

It is possible therefore that the Gild as originally constituted may have been either an association of young noblemen not yet of full estate, or of the personal attendants of various lords, who, although in those days regarded as of an inferior rank even to the thegns, nevertheless occupied positions of trust in their lords' households, and were not incapable of holding grants of lands from them (Kemble Cod. Dip. III. 49, 50 ; and Thorpe, Dip. Angi. 559, 560, 545). That such associations were in existence in other towns of importance in early days appears from various sources ; for instance, in a Canterbury charter granted by King Ealhere (860–66) the following signatures are appended amongst others as witnesses : "Ego Aethelstan et ingan (sic) burgware." "Ego Aethelhelm et cniahta gealdan" (Thorpe, Dip. Ang. p. 128) ; and in the Winchester Domesday mention is made of "chenictehalla ubi chenictes potabunt gildam suam et eam libere tenebunt de rege Edwardo" (Gross, Gild Merchant, I. p. 188).

The story as told in the Liber Trinitatis with its romantic conditions suggests a period long subsequent to the times of King Edgar, or even of King Cnut, and suggests that the grant of the land and soke may well have been made at a later date when the members of the Gild had attained to higher rank and influence.

For whatever the status of the original members of the Gild may have been, sufficient evidence is forthcoming to show that at the date of the grant by the Cnihtengild to the Priory of Holy Trinity the members of the Gild were men of influence and importance in the City, who had attained to the full rights of citizenship.

Three of them, viz.: Radulphus, filius Algody ; Osbertus Drinchepyn ; Hugo, filius Wulgari are mentioned in the MS. of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's (Liber L. ff. 47–50), printed in Price's Guildhall, p. 16 et seq., as in charge of three of the wards of the City in the early part of the 12th century. These wards have been identified as Bread Street, Vintry, and Queenhithe respectively (Beaven, I. p. 363).

Another member of the guild, Robertus filius Leostani accounts for the Weaver's Guild in 1130 (Pipe Roll, 31 H. I.).

Wyzo filius Leostanus is described as a goldsmith in a MS. D. and C. of St. Paul's, Liber L. ff. 27–31, in which he is a party to an agreement relating to the grant of part of the church of St. Anthony to his son John (12th century).

Edwardus Upcornhill was father-in-law of Gervase of Corahill, Justiciar and Sheriff of London.

What became of the Gild after the date of this grant does not appear, but as no records of its subsequent existence have been brought to light, it is reasonable to assume that the surrender of the property was coincident with the dissolution of the Gild, and that the necessity for its existence being regarded as at an end, it was formally dissolved, and thenceforth ceased to have any corporate existence.

For further details as to the grant and the property comprised in it, etc., See under Portsoken, Portsoken Ward, Trinity (Holy) Priory. 

Cofferers

Elections to the Mistery of Cofferers mentioned 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 233).

Company of the Friscobaldi

A wealthy Company of Italian merchants and money-lenders (Cal. L. Bk. D. p. 268).

Corders

Elections to the Mistery of Corders, 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 233).

Cordwainers

Shoemakers. From French "Cordwain," Cordovan leather, made in imitation of the leather of Cordova or Corduba in Spain, manufactured later to a great extent from goatskin (Lib. Cust. 713, and Prompt. Parv. 92).

Workers or makers of new leather called "cordewaners," workers or makers of old leather called "cobelers," 1410, ii H. IV. (Cal. P.R. 1408–13, p. 158).

Incorporated 1410 under the title of Cordwainers and Cobblers.

Curriers

In Cordwainer Street in early times, and in Stow's time in London Wall (S. 82 and 177).

Incorporated 1605.

In 3 Ed. II. two plots of land in parish of St. Nicholas Shambles were leased to the Curriers of ox leather for a market for their leather, certain buildings for the purpose being set up for them (Cal. L. Bk. C. 173).

Fraternity in the Whitefriars, 1367.

In 1584-5 in draft act for the establishment of the Company of Curriers in London, it was enacted that only freemen and members of the Curriers' Company should practise the trade of dressing, working and currying of leather tanned with oak bark (MSS. H. of Lords, in H. MSS. Com. 3rd Rep. 6).

Cutlers' Company

Elections to the Mistery made in 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 233).

Company incorporated 4 H. VI., uniting three smaller Companies, viz.: the Bladers, forgers of blades ; the makers of Haftes and otherwise garnishers of blades ; the Sheath-makers, for swords, daggers and kaives (S. 247).

Drapers' Company

One of the twelve Great Livery Companies.

Obtained charter 1364, incorporated, 17 H. VI.

Elections to the Mistery of Drapers mentioned in 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 232).

Many of the Drapers lived in Birchin Lane and Cornhill in Stow's time (p. 200).

Also called Clothiers. "Pannarius" = Clothier. So translated in grant of their Hall in Throgmorton Street (See Drapers' Hall).

Herbert suggests that the term "drapers" was applied to those who made and sold cloth in or near London, and "clothiers" to those who brought it for sale from the country (I. 394).

Dyers' Company

Incorporated 4 H. VI. (S. 239).

Privilege accorded to them of having on the Thames a game of Swans and a special Swan mark. The number of swans allowed them was 65, and the mark of the Company is 4 bars and 1 nick, the nick being cut on the bill of the birds. The Vintners had a similar privilege, their mark being the letter "U," and 2 nicks. This was corrupted in the well-known tavern sign into "the Swan with two necks."

Fishmongers' Company

The Fishmongers formed originally two separate Companies, viz. Stockefishmongers and Saltfishmongers.

United 11 H. VI. under the name of The Fishmongers (Pat. 11 H. VI. quoted Herbert, II. p. 5). Separated again 21 H. VII. and reunited finally and incorporated 26 H. VIII. (ib. p. 6).

Account of the elections to the Mistery of the Fishmongers given 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. F. p. 232).

New charter of Incorporation granted 2 Jas. I. (Herbert II. p. 6).

Well endowed and wealthy.

A brotherhood of St. Peter was established in St. Peter's Cornhill 4 H. IV. by the King for the Fishmongers (S. 196).

Said to have been in existence as an association or brotherhood prior to Henry II.

There is an interesting account of the Company and the Hall in Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. N.S. II. (2) 193).

Fraternity of the Pui

A brotherhood of French and English traders in London united for certain charitable purposes and the cultivation of music and poetry, the original society having apparently been formed at the city of Le Puy, the ancient capital of Velay in Auvergne (Riley's Memorials, p. 42).

The rules of the Fraternity are set out in the Liber. Cust. p. 216 et seqq., and "le Feste de Pui" was to be celebrated annually in London.

Provision made for the collection of weekly alms for the support of the Chapel of Our Lady near Guildhall founded "pur tote la compaignie du Pui" (ib.).

Henry le Waleis gave to the Confraternity of the Pui (de Podio) 5 marks annual quit rent on all his tenements in London for maintenance of a chaplain to celebrate divine-service in the new chapel at the Guildhall (Cal. L. Bk. E. pp. 1 and 2).

See St. Mary Magdalen of the Guildhall.

Fraternity of Webbes

Gift to the Fraternity by John Fich or Fyssh, 1356 (Ct. H.W. I. 689).

Webbe = Weaver.

Girdlers, the

Ordinances made concerning the "mestier" of Girdlers of London, 1326–7, I Ed. III. (Cal. L. Bk. F. p. 108).

Elections to Mistery of Girdlers, 1328 (ib. E. p. 232).

Had their seld in Westchepe called "Gerdleresselde" in parish of St. Pancras in 1332–3 (Ct. H.W. I. 384).

Incorporated 1449. Pinners and Wiredrawers incorporated with them 1568.

Glass Sellers

Incorporated with looking-glass makers 1664.

Gold and Silver Wiredrawers

Incorporated 1623.

Goldsmiths' Company

The fifth in order of the twelve Great City Companies.

Existed as a Guild, apparently of foreign origin from a very early period, perhaps as the "Gilda Aurifabrorum."

It is mentioned in 1180 as one of the adulterine guilds which had to pay a fine to the king.

Incorporated 1327. Elections to the Mistery of the Goldsmiths made 1328 (Cal. L Bk. E. p. 232).

The privilege of assaying and stamping all articles of gold and silver manufacture was reserved to them by charter, and as lenders of money they were the precursors of the great banking houses.

The Company is very wealthy, and in addition to numerous other charitable works has endowed the Goldsmiths' Company's Institute at New Cross, a great educational centre.

Grocers' Company

The Grocers of old time were called Pepperers and were first incorporated by the name of Grocers in 1345 (S. 265).

Elections to the Mistery of Grocers are recorded in 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 232), the Apothecaries being enumerated separately.

In 1365 Nicholas Chaucer of Sopere lane was Surveyor of the Trade of Grocers, Pepperers and Apothecaries (Cal. L. Bk. G. p. 204).

Thos. Knowles gave them a tenement in the churchyard of St. Antholin for the relief of their poor (S. 266).

Guilds

Associations formed to promote special objects, the members being bound together to observe certain rules and regulations for the attainment of these objects.

Formed in early times more especially for religious and trade purposes. The religious guilds were often termed fraternities, and there was hardly a parish in London in the 13th and 14th centuries without one or more of such associations. The trade guilds were formed by the individual craftsmen of a particular trade to protect the interests of the trade by mutual assurance, and they developed into very powerful associations.

Their ordinances were directed to the organisation and perfection of their craft, to the exclusion of foreigners from their ranks, to the training and admission of apprentices, etc., and to other useful regulations tending to the security and improvement of their particular craft or trade.

These guilds were the predecessors of the present City Companies.

In the earlier Letter Books the word "guild," except as forming part of the compound "Guildhall," is rarely to be met with, the word "mistery" being generally employed to denote these trade associations.

Various theories have been formulated from time to time as to the origin of the guilds existing in Anglo-Saxon times. Perhaps the most reasonable is that which identifies them with the Roman "collegia privata," which were established in this country during the Roman rule, and to which the Anglo-Saxon guilds show a striking similarity, both in origin and composition, as well as in their regulations.

Haberdashers' Company

Or Hurrers, as they were called. Incorporated a brotherhood 26 H. VI., including the Cappers and Hat Marchantes.

Elections to the Mistery of Haberdashers were made as early as 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 233).

In 28 Hen. VI. licence was granted to the Mistery of Haberdashers to establish a Guild of St. Katherine, which was to be a perpetual corporation to hold land, etc. (Cal. L. Bk. K. p. 330).

Eighth in order of the twelve Great Companies.

The Company maintains several schools, almshouses, etc.

Hanse, the

A company, society, or corporation of merchants belonging to certain cities in Germany, who had formed amongst themselves, c. 1140, the Hanseatic League for purposes of trade. The towns to which they belonged were known as the "Hanse towns" (Skeat).

The merchants of Almaine and the Easterlings, frequently referred to in London records, belonged to the Hanse.

The Almaines in London belonging to the Hanse were charged with the repair and safe-keeping of the upper part of Bishopsgate, 1282 (Cal. L. Bk. C. p. 41), and were freed from toll going in and out of the gate in consequence, 1305 (ib. p. 111).

The repair of the gate remained in their hands until 1324 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 84). 

Hosiers

Elections made to the Mistery of Hosiers, 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 233).

Ironmongers' Company

The tenth of the Twelve Great Companies. Incorporated 3 Ed. IV. 1463–4.

Mentioned as a guild 1330, and an ordinance regulating the trade was issued 29 Ed. I.

Elections to the Mistery of Ironmongers took place in 1328 (Cal. L. Book E. p. 232).

There is a book of Orders of the Company of 1498.

In Stow's time the Ironmongers lived mostly in the parish of St. Dunstan's in the East (p. 136). 

Italian Merchants

See Bardi, Lombards, Friscobaldi, Society of Lucca.

Leathersellers' Company

Incorporated 21 Rich. II (S. 173).

They purchased the Hall and other buildings belonging to the dissolved Priory of St. Helen's (ib.) and erected almshouses in Little St. Helen's for the poor of the Company (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 107).

See Leathersellers' Hall.

Linen Armourers

Stow mentions them as one Company with the Tailors in 1452 (S. 153).

Lorimerie, le; Lorimers, the

Incorporated 1712, 57th in order of the City Companies.

Mistery of Lorimers of copper and iron mentioned 1327 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 220).

The street of "la Lorimerie" in parish of St. Mildred existed in 1260 (Cal. Charter Rolls, II. p. 33). Probably the Lorimers' quarter in the City.

Lucca, Society of

The society of Luka held in common with John le Mazerer, a tenement by the bridge of Walbrook near Bokerelesbere, and were responsible with tenants of adjoining premises for keeping the bridge in repair in 1291 (Cal. L. Bk. A. p. 178).

A society of Italian merchants residing in England for purposes of trade and commerce. Compare the "Bardi" (q.v.).

Lusting Company

A company of merchants, whose house stood in Austin Friars (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 132).

Melters of Tallow and Lard

Unctarii—excluded from Chepe 1283 (Cal. L. Bk. A. p. 221).

In the Calendar, "unctarii" = "oynters."

Mercers' Company

The first of the 12 Great Livery Companies.

Incorporated 1393 (S. 272).

They had their shops and selds in the Mercery in Chepe in early times.

Built Gresham College jointly with the Corporation.

Elections to the Mistery of Mercers made in 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 232).

Merchant Taylors

Originally called Tailors and Linen-Armourers. A charter of Liberties was granted to them under this name, 1 Ed. III. 1326–7 (Cal. L. Bk. F. p. 52).

Elections to Mistery of Tailors and Linen-Armourers recorded 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 234).

The advowson of St. Martin Outwich was granted to them, 6 H. IV. (S. 182).

Incorporated by Hen. VII. by the name of the Master and Wardens of the Merchant Taylors of the fraternitie of Saint John Baptist (S. 183).

Master called "pilgrim" and the wardens "purveyors of alms" until 11 Eich. II. (ib.).

Had a School, Almshouses, etc. (Herbert II. 488 et seq.).

Needlemakers' Company

Incorporated 1656. No Hall.

Oynters

A list of the oynters (unctuani) who held selds in Chepe in 1283 set out in Cal. Letter Book A. p. 221, upon the occasion of their exclusion from these selds.

Were they connected with the Candlemakers?

Painters' Company

Elections to Mistery of Painters made 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 234). Incorporated 1580.

Pattenmakers' Company

Incorporated 1670 (Dodsley, 1761).

Pepperers

Lived chiefly in Soper Lane, the Ropery and Chepe in 1345 (Cal. L. Bk. F. p. 127).

In Bucklersbury in Stow's time (S. p. 82).

Bequest made to the Fraternity of Pepperers of Soper Lane, 1350–1 (Ct. H.W. I. 648).

In 1365 Nicholas Chaucer was Surveyor of the Mistery of Grocers, Pepperers and Apothecaries of Sopereslane (Cal. L. Bk. G. p. 204).

Peters

A name given to the fishermen who brought fresh fish into the City for sale.

In 1406 they were ordered to stand in Chepe with their fish and nowhere else (Cal. L. Bk. I. 56).

The fishermen at Gravesend were known some years ago as Petermen.

"Peteresnets" are mentioned in the City Records.

Pinners

Pinners or Pinmakers' Company, one of the City guilds, but without livery and not now in existence (Wheatley).

Incorporated 1636.

Porters

Four brotherhoods, viz. Companies' porters, Fellowship porters, Ticket porters, Tackle porters (Dodsley, 1761).

Porters of Soper's Lane

The porters of Soper's lane customarily served the Pepperers, 1372, and agreed to serve the Grocers and to have six men ready every day in Soper's lane and Bucklersbury to carry packages (Ct. H.W. II. 145).

Potters

The makers of brass pots were so called 1316 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 67).

Poulterers

See Poultry.

Company Incorporated 1504.

Saddlers, the

The twenty-fifth of the City Companies, incorporated 37 Ed. III. 1363.

In 1327 the men of the mistery of the Saddlers entered into an agreement with the men of the mistery of Fusters and Lorimers (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 219).

The gardens of the saddlers abutted on the northern boundary of Drapers' Gardens, 1543 (L. and P. H. VIII. XVIII. (I), p. 528).

Salters' Company

The ninth in order of the twelve Great Companies.

Grant of Livery temp. Rich. II. 1394. Incorporated 1558.

Many lived in parish of St. Dunstan in the East in Stow's time (S. 136).

Fellowship of Corpus Christi called the Salters, 14 H. VIII. (L. and P. H. VIII. III. (2), 1053).

Scavagers

Mentioned in early records. Those who set out or showed wares, "Court de scawyatoribus," 5 Ed. III. (Cal. L. Bk. C. 151, and E. p. 267).

Scavage or showage was a toll or duty paid for the oversight of certain officials upon the "showage" or "opening out" of imported goods, from A.S. "sceawian," "to look at," "view" or "search." (See Lib. Albus, I. 223.)

Scottish Corporation

See Scotch Hall.

Shipwrights

Incorporated 1605.

Silk Men

Incorporated 1631 (Dodsley, 1761).

Silk Throwers

Incorporated 1630.

Skinners' Company

The sixth of the twelve great Livery Companies. Mentioned as a trade guild 1319. Incorporated 1327, governed by a master, four wardens, and Court of assistants. Called the Pellipers or Skinners (Cal. L. Bk. E. 226).

Hall in Dowgate Hill (q.v.). Elections to the Mistery of Skinners were made 1328 (ib. 233).

Fraternities of Corpus Christi and of Our Lady in the Guild in 14th to 16th centuries. Ordinances of the Company set out in Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. V. p. 104 et seq.

Sopemakers

Incorporated 1638.

Spectacle Makers

Incorporated 1630 (Dodsley, 1761).

Stationers' Company

The ordinances of the mistery of Scriveners and lymenours were submitted to the Mayor and Aldermen in 1403 and approved (Cal. L. Bk. I. p.26).

First mentioned in 1417 as the Mistery of Scriveners, Limners and Stacioners (Cal. L. Bk. 1. p. 173).

The Company would therefore appear to have been composed originally of the scriveners, or text writers and Illuminators or lymenours, together with the Stacyoners, defined in the Prompt. Parv. c. 1440, as "he that sellythe bokys," from Latin "stacionarius."

Later, after the discovery and introduction of printing in England, the printers seem to have obtained admission into the Company, for at the time of the incorporation of the Company in 1557 by Philip and Mary the patent was expressly granted to them in their capacity of printers to assist the government in the control of printed publications.

Its privileges, however, have never been confined to this one branch of the trade, but have included at all times printers, booksellers, publishers, as well as the manufacturers of materials for writing and printing.

The word "Stationer," as suggested above, appears to be derived from the Latin "Stationarius," which term was in use in the universities to designate those persons who were in charge of a Station or depöt where the standard texts of classical works were kept and who were authorised to deal out these texts to the students by sale or loan (L. and M. Arch. Soc. Trans. II. 37 et seq.).

There were similar stations "for trading purposes in use in Cheap in the 14th century, for in 1379 the "Stations" around the High Cross and "le Brokenecros" were leased by the Mayor and Chamberlain to divers persons, and the profits applied for public purposes (Cal. L. Bk. H. pp. 131–3).

Thus the word Stationer was originally used to denote a bookseller, and the present narrower definition assigned to it must be regarded as of modern origin.

The registers of books entered at Stationers' Hall since 1557 constitute a most valuable record of the literature of the period, and form a priceless possession of the Company.

There is an interesting account of the Company, etc., compiled from the records in Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. N.S. II. (1), p. 119.

Tackle House and Ticket Porters

This Fellowship possessed the right of porterage of all unmeasurable goods, that of measureable goods being exercised by the Fellowship Porters.

The Governor was always an Alderman assisted by a Court of twelve Rulers.

Each of the twelve great Companies appointed one Tackle-house Porter and had the right to possess a tackle-house for lading and unlading goods. These Tackle-house Porters employed the Ticket Porters to work under them. These were limited to 500 and only members of the Fellowship could employ these Porters. No Hall. Fellowship now dissolved.

Tailors

See Fraternity of St. John; Linen Armourers; Bassett's Inn; Benbridge's Inn.

Templars

Called "Fratres Militie Templi in Anglia" (Ch. I. p.m. 28 Ed. I. 59).

Order dissolved and subsequently possessions assigned to Order of St. John of Jerusalem, 9 Ed. III. 1335 (Cal. P.R. Ed. III. 1334–8, p. 158).

See The Temple.

Tin Plate Workers

Incorporated 1670.

Turners

Six sworn in 1310 not to make false measures. They dwelt in different parts of the City, two in Wood Street (Cal. L. Bk. D. p. 240 and Riley's Mem. p. 78).

Incorporated 2 James I. Fifty-first in order of the Companies.

Upholders

Occupied the south side of Cornhill from Birchin Lane to the Stocks, temp. Henry VI. (S. 200).

Incorporated 1627.

They sold household stuff.

Strype mentions the Upholsters on the south side in 1720 (I. ii. 149).

The Hall was in Leadenhall Street (P.C. 1732).

Water Bearers

A Brotherhood of St. Christopher of the Water Bearers founded in the Augustine Friars. Confirmed 1496. Ordinances set out in L. and M. Arch. Soc. Trans. IV. 55–58.

Ordinances of the Company made 1497 (Overall, p. 219).

Weavers' Company

The forty-second in order of the Livery Companies and said to be the oldest possessing the exclusive privilege of admitting to the freedom and livery of the Company persons not free of the City of London.

Roach Smith thinks it was of Roman origin, implements for weaving having been discovered amongst Roman remains (Illus. R. Lond. p. 144).

First Charter of Incorporation granted by Henry II. 1184, with the seal of Thomas á Becket affixed to it.

By John's Charter (1202) granted on the petition of the Mayor and citizens, the Guild of Weavers was never again to be in the City (Cal. L. Bk. C. p. 55).

The Charter of Ed. I. confirming their privileges is set out in Cal. L. Bk. D. p. 221.

The weavers of woollen cloth dwelt in Candlewick Street at one time (S. 219).

See Fraternity of Webbes.

Wheelwrights

Incorporated 1670.

Wire Drawers

Allowed to have shops in Blanch Appleton (q.v.).

See Wyremongers.

Woolmongers

Elections to Mistery of Woolmongers made 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E p. 232).

Wyndrawers of London

Carters of Wine.

Four companies of them in 1301: "The Newemeyne" (New Household).

The King's Society and The Society of Shipup (Riley Mem. xxj.).

Wyremongers

Founded 1479 by the union of Chapemakers and Wyredrawers.

No one to work on November 25th, the day of St. Clement the Pope (N. and Q. 11th S. IV. 147).